Following the Red Skorba phase (4400-4100 BCE), the Żebbuġ phase (4100-3700 BCE) brings to an end the long period of exclusive village settlement in prehistoric Malta and introduces a new period culminating in the extensive megalithic constructions seen throughout the Maltese islands. The Żebbuġ phase led to the Mġarr phase (3800-3600 BCE).
The appearance of Żebbuġ Ware towards the end of the Fifth Millennium BCE marks a major break with tradition and may represent a further influx of people. However, there is continuity in other aspects of the local culture such as architecture and sculpture. Decoration is prolific and includes painted designs (red on a cream colored slip), grooves infilled with white paste and incised patterns, including anthropomorphic designs.
The most significant cultural development of this period was the introduction of formal burials in rock-cut chamber tombs and a further elaboration of the cultural customs and cult activities; a difference between purely domestic buildings and ritual space was maintained by means of specifically constructed buildings which came to include the Skorba Temples and the subterranean Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni. From the Żebbuġ phase onwards a clear demarcation was made between the everyday domestic and ritual spaces' surface monuments and underground cemeteries were to follow distinct evolutionary trajectories.