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The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, also known as Cucuteni culture (from Romanian), Trypillian culture (from Ukrainian) or Tripolie culture (from Russian), is a late Neolithic archaeological culture that flourished between ca. 5500 BC and 2750 BC, spanning more than 35000 kmp[1], between Carpathian Mountains and Dniester-Dnieper regions of modern-day Moldova,Romania, and Ukraine. The Cucuteni-Trypillians culture built the largest neolithic settlements in Europe, each of them with 10,000 or 15,000 people.[2] The settlements would be burned every 60–80 years with the culture moving elsewhere.[2]

Nomenclature Edit

The culture was initially named after Cucuteni, Iaşi county, Romania, where the first objects associated with this culture were discovered. The first archeological diggings in Cucuteni site were initiated in the spring of 1885 by N. Beldiceanu and D. Butculescu. The findings made were announced to the scientific world through articles signed by N. Beldiceanu, Antichitatile de la Cucuteni (“The Antiquitites at Cucuteni”) (1885), and Gr. Butureanu, Notita asupra sapaturilor si cercetarilor facute la Cucuteni (“Note on the Diggings and Research at Cucuteni”) (1889), as well as through communications given by Gr. Butureanu at the International Congress of Anthropology and Praehistoric Archaeology in Paris on 1889, and by D. Diamandi within the Society of Anthropology in Paris (1889).[3]

Simultaneously in around 1887[4], (possibly 1893 [5] or 1896[6]), the Czech archaeologist Vicenty Khvoika uncovered the first of close to one hundred Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements, and excavations started in 1909.[7] V. Khvoika documented "this discovery to the 11th Congress of Archaeologists in 1897, which is was considered the official date of the discovery of the Trypillian culture in Ukraine (E-Museum, 2004)[4][8].In 1897, similar objects were excavated in Trypillia (Template:Lang-ua), Kiev Governorate, Ukraine. As a result, the culture has been known in Soviet, Russian, and Ukrainian publications as Tripolie, Tripolian or Trypillian culture. A compromise currently exists in the English name: Cucuteni-Trypillia.

Extent Edit

As of 2003, about 3000[9] sites of Cucuteni-Trypillian culture have been identified in Moldova, Romania, and Ukraine. J.P. Mallory reports that the

culture is attested from well over a thousand sites in the form of everything from small villages to vast settlements consisting of hundreds of dwellings surrounded by multiple ditches[10]
It was centered on the middle to upper Dniester River (in the present-day Republic of Moldova) with an extension in the northeast to as far as the Dnieper.

Periodization Edit

The creators of the culture were tribes who stretched from the Balkans and Danube basin and Carpathians encompasing territories in contemporary Romania, Moldova and Ukraine. Scholars categorize the culture into three distinct periods

  • early - 5300-4600 B.C.
  • middle - 4600-3200 B.C.
  • late - 3200-2750/2600 B.C.

Due to the fact that, the research of Cucuteni-Tripolie culture, was divided during time, two classifications were used, one for Tripolie and another for Cucuteni. The traditional chronology subdivisions are based on differences on technology, morphology and decorations.[11] The Cucuteni Periodization was proposed by the German Archeologis Hubert Schmidt in 1932[12], the Tripolie preiodization was proposed by T.S Passek in 1949.[13]

Tripolje Cucuteni Time frame. BC Bulgarien
A Precucuteni I-III 4800-4500 Gumelnita
B1 A 4500-4200
B1-2 A/B 4200-4000
B2/C1 B 4000-3500
C2 - 3500-3200

Early period Edit

File:CucuteniRitualStatues.jpg
In the second half of the 6th millennium B.C. and in the first half of the 5th millenium the tribes settled in the basin of the Dnieper and Buh rivers and in close to the Carpahian Mountains. The roots of Cucuteni-Trypillian culture are from Starcevo-Cris culture and Bug-Dniester culture[14], Linear Pottery culture. etc. The settlements were located close to rivers, however a number of settlements have been discovered on the plateaus. Dwellings were made in the ground or half dug into the ground. The floors and fireplaces were made of clay, walls made of wood or reeds covered in clay. Roofing was made of straw or reeds.


The inhabitants were involved with animal husbandry and agriculture, fishing and gathering. Wheat, rye and peas were grown. Tools included ploughs made of antlers, stone, bone and sharpened sticks. The harvest was collected with scythes made of flint inlaid blades. The grain was milled by stone wheels. Women were involved in pottery, clothing and played a leading role in community life. Men hunted, looked out for the cattle, made tools from flint, bone and stone. Cattle were important and pigs, sheep and goats took a secondary place. The horse was domesticated. Female statues and amulets were made of clay. Rarely one comes across copper items, primarily bracelets, rings and hooks. One settlement in Korbuni, Moldova had a large number of copper items, primarily jewelry which were dated back to the beginning of the 5th millennium BC.

Middle period Edit

File:Tripolye 01.jpg

In the middle era the Trypillian culture spread over a wide area from Eastern Transylvania in the West to the Dniper river in he East. The population settled on the banks of the Upper and Middle Right bank of the Dniper river. The population grew consderably and they lived on plateaus near major rivers and springs. Their dwellings were built on poles in the form of circles or ovals. Dwellings were built on log floors covered in clay. Walls were woven from wood covered in clay and a clay stove was situated in the centre of the dwelling. With the growth in population, the area of agriculture also grew. Animal husbandry was popular, however hunting also continued. Tools made of flint, rock and bones were used for cultivation. Axes made of copper have been discovered mined in Volyn and in the areas around the Dniper river. Pottery making was sophisticated. Characteristics were a mono-chromal spiral ornament, painted with black paint on yellow and red base. Pottery was made by hand. Large pear-shaped pottery for the saving of grain, plates etc. Statues of female figures, figures of animals and models of houses have also been found. it is thought that the tribes were matrilineal.

Late period Edit

File:Tripolye statue.jpg

The late period the territory expanded to include Volyn to the river Sluch and Horyn' and both banks of the Dnieper river near Kyiv. In the area near the Black sea the inhabitants communicated with other cultures. Animal husbandry became more important. Horses became more important. The community transformed into a patriarchal structure. Communities were established on the Don and Volga rivers. Habitats were build differently, spiral ornaments disappear from pottery with a new rope-like ornament becoming popular. Different forms of ritual burial were developed in holes with elaborate burial rituals. The fate of these tribes is tied in with the introduction of Bronze Age items.

Features Edit

File:Cucuteni museum.cristibur.JPG
File:2007 07260170.JPG
The largest collection of artifacts from the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture can be found in museums in Russia, Ukraine, and Romania, including the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg and the Museum of History & Archaeology in Piatra Neamţ.

The settlements Edit

In term of overall size, some of Tripolie sites, such as Talianki, are as large, or even larger then city-states of Summer,and precede them chronologically by more then half of millennium. The reasons for that the gigantic settlements of Cucuteni Tripolie are not named "cities" or even "proto-urban formations", is that the evidence for internal social differentiation or specialization is very poor.[15]
The Cucuteni-Trypillia settlements were usually located on a place where the geomorphology provided natural barrier to access the site: high river terraces or river canyon edge. The natural obstacles were supplemented with fences,earthworks and ditches, or even more elaborated wooden and clay structures.[16]. The role of the fortification was perhaps to protect the domestic herd from wild predators.[17], other hypotheses are that the fortifications were against marauder enemies or as measure to gather the community[18], still the role of Cucuteni fortifications is debate reasons among specialists.


Placing the building in an circle surrounding an isolated structure was the most common arrangement for Cucuteni sites, some examples of this arrangements were found at Tîrpeşti, Ioblona, Berezkovskaya,Onoprievka,Răşcani.[19] The earliest villages consisted of ten to fifteen households. In their heyday, settlements expanded to include several hundred large adobe huts, sometimes with two stories. These houses were typically warmed by an oven and had round windows. The huts had furnaces used to create pottery, which the Cucuteni-Trypillians are most known for.

Largest settlements Edit

The existence of the giant-settlements was realised in the 1960s, when the military topographer K.V. Shishkin noticed presence of peculiar spots on certain aerial pictures.[20]

Regarding Cucuteni culture large settlements there are two point of view: one who state that the settlements were created before the threat of "Steppe invasion", and the other one who claim that the large settlements appear a a result of natural development and as a response of inter-tribal Cucuteni-Tripilia wars.[21]

  • Talianki with up to 15,000 inhabitants and covered an area of 400 ha[15] and 2,700 houses, 3700 BC. Talianki is the largest and best studied Tripolye settlement in Ukraine,as most of the Cucuteni-Tripolie settlements, the houses were arranged in two elliptical rows,separated by a space of 70-100 metres, of rectangular buildings. [22]
  • Dobrovody up to 10,000 inhabitants and covered an area of 250 ha[15] and fortified 3800 BC.
  • Maydanets up to 10,000 inhabitants(most probable 6000 to 9000[23]}, area 270 ha[15], 1,575 houses, 3700 BC.
  • Nebelivka - 300 hectares[24]

Some archaeologists (ČERNJAKOV 1993, 18-19) put the large extension of Cucuteni/Tripolye complex in connection with their agricultural system. This situation is connected lately with the climatical changes, which determined also modifications in the Black Sea level.
[9]

House BurningEdit

File:ArhExp3 Arheoinvest.jpg

The archeological finds show that a vast majority of Cucuteni-Tripolie houses were burned. Some historians claim that houses were burned on purpose on cyclic time:

Indeed the phenomenon of burned houses has been treated as a series of lucky accidents during the Neolithic, which are primarily responsible for the preservation of Neolithic sites. Contrary this view, I argue that it is unlikely that the houses were burned as a result of a series of accidents or for any structural and technological reasons but rather that they were destroyed by deliberate burning and most likely for reasons of a symbolic nature.
[26] [27]
There are theories that states that the houses were accidentally burned due to the high risk of primitive ovens, or due to tribal rivalry, and considering that a large quantity of stored food was found in some burned sites. The stored food in some of burned sites excludes the ritual burning.[28]
There are some hipothesis that the every house was burned at the end of lifespan.
Whether the houses were set on fire in a ritualistic way all together before abandoning the settlement, or each house was destroyed at the end of its life (e.g. before building a new one) it is still a matter of debate.
[29]

House ConstructionEdit

HousesEdit

There were identified two type of house structure, one with fork shape beam sunk in the soil and the another one with beams over the ground plates fixed on the soil.The verticals beams were distributed at even distances, the round beams used having around 15-20 cm in diameter, but also bigger timber were used. Usually the walls were from woven branches covered with clay, and finished with plastic motifs or with pictures. The clay layer was usually under 5 cm. Sometimes the walls were from horizontally timber beams covered with clay. Sometimes over the walls of timber beams was applied a woven branches. The was no "neolithic standards", even in the same house some walls sere realized with timber beams covered with finished lumber and other walls were realized with woven branches.Cuuteni houses were roofed with turf or reeds.[30]

Bordei dwellingsEdit

Some of the houses found by archeologists were dugout type.

Agriculture Edit

Agriculture is attested to, as well as livestock-raising, mainly consisting of cattle, but goats/sheep and swine are also evidenced. Based on fauna remains from archaeological discoveries the hunting was also a secondary practice.

Plants UsedEdit

Common wheat (Triticum Compactum), Wheat (Triticum Vulgare), Oat (Avena Sativa),Rye(Secale cereale),Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) and also technical plants Hemp (Canabis sativa), also the Apricot (Armeniaca Vulgaris) and Cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) were known, and also Common Grape Vine andForrest Grape Vine.[31]

LivestockEdit

Considering some zoomorphing representations, the Ox was use as a draft animal.[32] For meat production there was use sheep, and goat also pigsand dogs were also known as a domesticated animals. There is no proof about using horses during eneolitic even if there are some representations on pottery, no one know if there are representations of wild horses or domesticated horses, even if some historians argue that the horse was domesticated(V.V Gromova V.I Tolkin).[33], the most probable the archeological evidences of horse-head maces found in Cucuteni sites, which support the theory of domesticated horse, are imports from Suvorovo culture imigrants. [34]

HuntingEdit

File:CucuteniHornsilexrazor.JPG
File:Cucutenicopperneedle.jpg

Even if the main occupation was the plant cultivation, afeter livestock the hunting was also a secondary occupation. The archeological proof show that during Cucuteni culture, there was hunted: Red Deer, Roe Deer, Wild boar, Aurochs, fox and Brown Bear. For hunting purpose the following methods were used: Archery, spear, Mace (club), traps were also used, and also hunters were using disguise as pray.[35]

Salt ExploatationEdit

The Salt was having a very important role for the neo-eneolithic economy ncluding cucuteni Culture.[36] At Poiana Slatinei-Lunca a salt water spring exploitation, used during Precucuteni stages, was discovered.[37] Recent studie show a direct link between the salt spring exploitation and Cucuteni population growth.[38]

RitesEdit

Based on the fact that some figures discovered in Gherlaiesti were arranged in cardinal position, considering the cross shape of the altars, and some simbols like gamma cross, some historians caracterize the Cucuteni rituals as Chthonic and Uranians [39] stil others historians deny the uranic character of Tripolie rituals.[40]

File:Cucuteniritual.JPG
,
File:CucuteniGhelaiestifigurines.svg

Funerary RitesEdit

File:CucuteniOmega.jpg

One of the unanswered questions regarding the Cucuteni Culture is the lack of artifacts regarding the funerary rites. While the evidence for settlements is strong the mortuary activity is almost invisible.[41]

There are no Cucuteni cemeteries and the Tripolye one's which have been dicovered are very late
[42] The discovery of skulls is more frequent then other parts of the body, still no statistic study was carried out.

Bolomey and Marinescu-Bîlcu suggest that the common practice was the abandonment of the body to the "good mercy" of Mother Nature.[43]
Pasek and Movșa have an hypothesis that some bones were considered to have magic powers and were scattered on purpose across the settlement.
Other suggest the antrophagy or at least excarnation.
It is the merit of Alexandra Bolomey (BOLOMEY 1982) that, in an ample paper published in the ninth decade of the last century, made a review of a series of these human remains, found within the respective culture, reaching, among others to the conclusion that, at least partly, they have a cultic character and maybe even there was an antropophagy of cultic type.
[44]


The only conclusion which can be draw from archeological evidence is that the in Cucuteni culture in vast majority of cases the bodies were not formally deposited within the settlement area.[45]

Arts and CraftsEdit

PotteryEdit

The pottery is connected to the Linear Pottery culture.

In early stages of the Cucuteni culture, the polychromy was poor, the ceramics was decorated with incisions, sometimes the incisions were filled with white or red, in order to emphasize the model.[9]
As time progressed the Cucuteni-Trypillians began creating better weapons using stronger metals, and the effort put into pottery became less noticeable.

The pigments used were based on Iron oxide for red hues, calcium carbonate and calcium silicate for white ones and for the black iron and manganese compounds (magnetite and jacobsite). In the case of the black pigments some sort of primitive trade was shown, the Iacobeni-Moldova and Nikopol-Ukraine are belived the source of black pigments for cucuteni culture. [46] [47] No traces from Nikopol black pigments were found in Cucuteni area ceramics which show that the trade was limited. Further more some pigments used were of organic origin (bones or wood).[48]

Frumusica Dance, a ceramic anthropomorphic support, was discovered in 1942 on Cetatuia Hill near Bodestii de Sus (Neamt county, Romania), it was considered a symbol of Cucuteni Culture.

It is considered that the neollitic artist has represented an ritualic dance, similar artefacts were founds in Berești and Dragușini.

FigurinesEdit

Extant figurines excavated at the Cucuteni sites are thought to represent religious artefacts, but their meaning or use is still unknown.

Weaving and ClothingEdit

WeaponsEdit

File:SilexknivesCucuteni.JPG

Interaction with others culturesEdit

File:Tripolye pots.jpg

The Cucuteni culture was based on Balkan-Anatolian tradition, who grew on a Carpatian-Danubian fond, Cucuteni-Tripolye communities took new elements from the neighbouring communities, at the same level of evolution or from other neolithic ones, which led in the end to an eneolithic evolution.[49]Copper was extensively imported from the Balkans.Other productssubject of exchange or trade were: elegant painted pottery of Cucuteni/Tripolye,the raw material for making tools (silex or other kind of stones) and not ultimately salt.[9]

Most of the new customs that defined the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture (house styles, pottery styles, and domestic rituals centered on female figurines) were copied from the Boian culture of the Lower Danube Valley, and indicate a strong new connection with that region.
[50]

DeclineEdit

Gimbutist Kurgan TheoryEdit

Indo-Europeans.The Kurgan hypothesis (also theory or model),proposed by Marija Gimbutas in 1956, is one of the proposals about early Indo-European origins,theory combining archaeology with linguistics ,which postulates that the people of an archaeological "Kurgan culture" (a term grouping the Pit Grave culture and its predecessors) in the Pontic steppe were the most likely speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language.[51]

It is believed that the expansions of the Kurgan culture were a series of essentially hostile, military incursions where a new warrior culture imposed itself on the peaceful, matriarchal cultures of "Old Europe", replacing it with a patriarchal warrior society,[52] a process visible in the appearance of fortified settlements and hillforts and the graves of warrior-chieftains:

"The process of Indo-Europeanization was a cultural, not a physical, transformation. It must be understood as a military victory in terms of successfully imposing a new administrative system, language, and religion upon the indigenous groups.[53]"
The extinction of Cucuteni culture is synchronized with the 3rd Wave of Kurgan expansion, 3000–2800 BC, expansion of the Pit Grave culture beyond the steppes, with the appearance of the characteristic pit graves as far as the areas of modern Romania, Bulgaria and eastern Hungary, coincident with the end of the Cucuteni culture (c.2750 BC)

Still regarding the Kurgan Theory there are some voices,such is J. P. Mallory, who pledges for a non-violent culture assimilation, a diffusion scenario.

ArchaeogeneticsEdit

The current interpretation of genetic data suggests a strong genetic continuity in Europe; specifically, studies of mtDNA by Bryan Sykes show that about 80% of the genetic stock of Europeans originated in the Paleolithic.[54]


The sudden disappearance of many Cucuteni-Trypillian villages lead archaeologists to believe they were conquered and assimilated into another culture. These people, likely I2a1 in Haplogroup I and kurganized by the horse riding Indo-European tribes are still living there today.[citation needed]

Anatolian and Balkano-Danubian HypothesesEdit

Deforestation, Ecological Degradation, and Climatic change theories.Edit

File:CucuteniStoneAxe.jpg
The sudden disappearance of the gigantic Cucuteni Tripolie Sites is seen as a switch from extensive agricultural and mixed economy to one placing more emphasis on herding the livestock particularly cattle.[55]


Also ecological degradation from millennia of farming and deforestation, also are cited as causal factors for the decline of Old Europe [56][57]


The ecological approach was considered by historians since 1975 (V.Danilenko and M.Shmaglij), which consider Eneolithic, as time "of violation of equilibrium between society and ambient envi-ronment." [58]
The climatic change was also a important factor of Old Europe (including Cucuteni culture): According to The American Geographical Union, "The transition to today's arid climate was not gradual, but occurred in two specific episodes. The first, which was less severe, occurred between 6,700 and 5,500 years ago. The second, which was brutal, lasted from 4,000 to 3,600 years ago. Summer temperatures increased sharply, and precipitation decreased, according to carbon-14 dating. This event devastated ancient civilizations and their socio-economic systems." [59]

NotesEdit

  1. Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica, VII, Iaşi, 2000 CUCUTENI–TRIPOLYE CULTURAL COMPLEX: RELATIONS AND SYNCHRONISMS WITH OTHER CONTEMPORANEOUS CULTURES FROM THE BLACK SEA AREA CORNELIA-MAGDA MANTU page 1
  2. 2.0 2.1 Fulford, Robert (2009-03-17). "What we don't know can't hurt us". National Post. http://www.nationalpost.com/arts/story.html?id=1396118. Retrieved 2009-05-17. 
  3. http://www.arheo.ro/text/eng/istoric_eng.html Institutul de Arheologie – Iasi
  4. 4.0 4.1 http://www.trypillia.com/articles/eng/re1.shtml The Trypilska Kultura - The Spiritual Birthplace of Ukraine? Natalie Taranec
  5. http://www.trypillia.com/museum/index.shtml Trypilia Museum
  6. Trypillian Civilization in the prehistory of Europe by Mykhailo Videiko
  7. Andrew Wilson, The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2000, pg. 25
  8. http://www.trypillia.com/museum/index.shtml
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Biblioteca Antiquitatis The first Cucuteni Museum of Romania Foton 2005
  10. Mallory (1997).
  11. Prehistoric figurines: representation and corporeality in the Neolithic By Douglass Whitfield Bailey page 103
  12. Hubert Schmidt Cucuteni in der oberen Moldau, Rumänien Berlin-Leipzig 1932
  13. http://openlibrary.org/b/OL22401126M/Periodizat︠s︡ii︠a︡_tripolʹskikh_poseleniĭ T.S Passek Periodizatsiia tripolʹskikh poseleniĭ
  14. Iranica Antiqua,vol. XXXVII 2002 Archeological Transformations:Crossing the Pastoral/Agricultural Bridge by Philip L. KHOL page 153
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Iranica Antiqua,vol. XXXVII 2002 Archeological Transformations:Crossing the Pastoral/Agricultural Bridge by Philip L. KHOL page 153
  16. Prehistoric figurines: representation and corporeality in the Neolithic By Douglass Whitfield Bailey 103
  17. Marinescu-Bîlcu 1981 50
  18. Prehistoric figurines: representation and corporeality in the Neolithic By Douglass Whitfield Bailey 112
  19. Prehistoric figurines: representation and corporeality in the Neolithic By Douglass Whitfield Bailey 105
  20. http://www.iananu.kiev.ua/privatl/pages/Widejko/txt/cities.html TRYPILLYA CULTURE PROTO-CITIES: HISTORY OF DISCOVERY AND INVESTIGATIONS ©M.Yu.Videiko Published: Відейко М.Ю. Трипільські протоміста. Історія досліджень. Київ, 2002; с.103-125: (Videiko M.Yu. Trypillya culture proto-cities. History of investigations. Kiev,2002, p.103-125)
  21. http://www.iananu.kiev.ua/privatl/pages/Widejko/txt/cities.html TRYPILLYA CULTURE PROTO-CITIES: HISTORY OF DISCOVERY AND INVESTIGATIONS ©M.Yu.Videiko Published: Відейко М.Ю. Трипільські протоміста. Історія досліджень. Київ, 2002; с.103-125: (Videiko M.Yu. Trypillya culture proto-cities. History of investigations. Kiev,2002, p.103-125)
  22. http://www.wac6.org/livesite/precirculated/1683_precirculated.pdf The Tripolye house, a sacred and profane coexistence! Francesco Menotti, Basel University
  23. (Шмаглiй М. М., Вiдейко М. Ю., 1987)
  24. TRYPILLYA CULTURE PROTO-CITIES:HISTORY OF DISCOVERY AND INVESTIGATIONS ©M.Yu.Videiko Published: Відейко М.Ю. Трипільські протоміста. Історія досліджень. Київ, 2002; с.103-125: (Videiko M.Yu. Trypillya culture proto-cities. History of investigations. Kiev,2002, p.103-125).
  25. Iranica Antiqua,vol. XXXVII 2002 Archeological Transformations:Crossing the Pastoral/Agricultural Bridge by Philip L. KHOL page 183
  26. The Age of Clay: The Social Dynamics of House Destruction Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, Volume 16, Issue 4, December 1997, Pages 334-395 Mirjana Stevanovic
  27. Markevici V. I., Pozdnetripolskie plemena Severnoj Moldavii, Chişinău 1981
  28. Ștefan Cucoș Faza Cucuteni B în zona subcarpatică a Moldovei Muzeul de Istorie Piatra Neamț 1999
  29. The Tripolye house, a sacred and profane coexistence! Francesco Menotti, Basel University
  30. Ștefan Cucoș Faza Cucuteni B în zona subcarpatică a Moldovei Muzeul de Istorie Piatra Neamț 1999
  31. Ștefan Cucoș Faza Cucuteni B în zona subcarpatică a Moldovei Muzeul de Istorie Piatra Neamț 1999 page 164
  32. E.Comsa Cultivarea plantelor in cursul epocii neolitice pe teritoriul Romaniei TN, 1973
  33. Ștefan Cucoș Faza Cucuteni B în zona subcarpatică a Moldovei Muzeul de Istorie Piatra Neamț 1999 page 168
  34. Dergachev, Valentin A. (2002). "Two studies in defense of the migration concept". in Boyle, Katie; Renfrew, Colin; Levine, Marsha. Ancient Interactions: East and West in Eurasia. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs. pp. 93–112. ISBN 1902937198.
  35. Ștefan Cucoș Faza Cucuteni B în zona subcarpatică a Moldovei Muzeul de Istorie Piatra Neamț 1999 page 169
  36. Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica, VII, Iaşi, 2000 CUCUTENI–TRIPOLYE CULTURAL COMPLEX: RELATIONS AND SYNCHRONISMS WITH OTHER CONTEMPORANEOUS CULTURES FROM THE BLACK SEA AREA CORNELIA-MAGDA MANTU
  37. http://antiquity.ac.uk/projgall/weller/ Antiquity Vol 79 No 306 December 2005 The earliest salt production in the world: an early Neolithic exploitation in Poiana Slatinei-Lunca, Romania Olivier Weller & Gheorghe Dumitroaia
  38. http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/41/60/26/PDF/archaedyn2008_weller_brigand_etal.pdf ArchæDyn – Dijon, 23-25 june 2008 Dynamicssettlement pattern, production and trades from Neolithic to Middle Ages
  39. St Cucos, SCIV, 1973, 2, page 212
  40. S. Marinescu Balcu, SCIVA, 25, 1974, page 167
  41. Prehistoric figurines: representation and corporeality in the Neolithic By Douglass Whitfield Bailey page 114
  42. Prehistoric figurines: representation and corporeality in the Neolithic By Douglass Whitfield Bailey page 115
  43. MARINESCU-BÎLCU, BOLOMEY 2000 page 157
  44. Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica, IX, Iaşi, 2003 THE HUMAN BONE WITH POSSIBLE MARKS OF HUMAN TEETH FOUND AT LIVENI SITE (CUCUTENI CULTURE) SERGIU HAIMOVICI
  45. Prehistoric figurines: representation and corporeality in the Neolithic By Douglass Whitfield Bailey page 116
  46. http://web.archive.org/web/20110514095641/http://193.2.104.55/documenta/pdf34/DPConstantinescu34.pdf Phase and chemical composition analysis of pigments used in Cucuteni Neolithic painted ceramics. B. Constantinescu, R. Bugoi, E. Pantos, D. Popovici Documenta Praehistorica XXXIV (2007)
  47. Investigation of Neolithic ceramic pigments using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction Roxana Bugoi and Bogdan Constantinescu “Horia Hulubei” National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering, 077125 Bucharest, Romania Emmanuel Pantos CCLRC, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD, United Kingdom Dragomir Popovici National Museum of Romanian History, Bucharest, Romania
  48. www.nipne.ro/about/reports/docs/anuar20032004.pdf Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Scientific report 2003-2004
  49. Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica, VII, Iaşi, 2000 CUCUTENI–TRIPOLYE CULTURAL COMPLEX: RELATIONS AND SYNCHRONISMS WITH OTHER CONTEMPORANEOUS CULTURES FROM THE BLACK SEA AREA CORNELIA-MAGDA MANTU page 1
  50. The Farming Frontier on the Southern Steppes DAVID W. ANTHONY
  51. file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Cris/My%20Documents/1-proto-indo-european-2.htm A Grammar of Modern Indo-European at Indo-European Language Association
  52. Gimbutas (1982:1)
  53. Gimbutas, Dexter & Jones-Bley (1997:309)
  54. http://dnghu.org/indo-european-grammar/1-proto-indo-european-2.htm A Grammar of Modern Indo-European at Indo-European Language Association
  55. Iranica Antiqua,vol. XXXVII 2002 Archeological Transformations:Crossing the Pastoral/Agricultural Bridge by Philip L. KHOL page 152
  56. ^ a b c Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691058870.
  57. Todorova, Henrietta (1995). "The Neolithic, Eneolithic, and Transitional in Bulgarian Prehistory". in Bailey, Douglass W.; Panayotov, Ivan. Prehistoric Bulgaria. Monographs in World Archaeology. 22. Madison, WI: Prehistoric Press. pp. 79–98. ISBN 1881094111.
  58. TRYPILLYA CULTURE PROTO-CITIES:HISTORY OF DISCOVERY AND INVESTIGATIONS ©M.Yu.Videiko Published: Відейко М.Ю. Трипільські протоміста. Історія досліджень. Київ, 2002; с.103-125: (Videiko M.Yu. Trypillya culture proto-cities. History of investigations. Kiev,2002, p.103-125).
  59. http://web.archive.org/20071221222303/www.geocities.com/vcmtalk/primalwound.html THE PRIMAL WOUND By Larry Gambone


Bibliography Edit

English

German

  • Schmidt H. Cucuteni in der oberen Moldau, Rumanien: Die befestigte Siedlung mit bemalter Keramik von der Steinkupferzeit bis in die vollentwickelte. Berlin-Leipzig: Gruyter, 1932.

Romanian

  • Dumitrescu, V. Arta culturii Cucuteni. Bucureşti: Editura Meridiane, 1979.
  • Biblioteca Antiquitatis The first Cucuteni Museum of Romania Foton 2005
  • Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica, IX, Iaşi, 2003 THE HUMAN BONE WITH POSSIBLE MARKS OF HUMAN TEETH FOUND AT LIVENI SITE (CUCUTENI CULTURE) SERGIU HAIMOVICI
  • Marius Alexianu, Gheorghe Dumitroaia and Dan Monah, The Exploitation of the Salt-Water Sources in Moldavia: an Ethno-Archaeological Approach, in (eds.) D. Monah, Gh. Dumitroaia, O. Weller et J. Chapman, L'exploitation du sel à travers le temps, BMA, XVIII, Piatra-Neamt, 2007, p. 279-298;
  • Ștefan Cucoș Faza Cucuteni B în zona subcarpatică a Moldovei Muzeul de Istorie Piatra Neamț

Russian

  • Археология Украинской ССР, Киев, 1985, т.1
  • Бибиков С. Раннетрипольское поселение Лука-Врублевецкая на Днестре. МИА н. 38. М. — П. 1953.
  • Пассек Т. Раннеземледельческие (трипольские) племена Поднестровья, МИА, н. 84. Москва, 1961.
  • Пассек Т. Периодизация трипольских поселений. МИА, н. 10. М. — П. 1949.
  • Рыбаков Б.А., Космогония и мифология земледельцев энеолита // Советская археология, 1965, № 1—2.
  • Рындина Н.В. Древнейшее металлообрабатывающее производство Восточной Европы, М., 1971.
  • Хвойко В. Каменный век Среднего Поднепровья // Труды одиннадцатого археологического сьезда в Киеве. І. Киев, 1901.
  • Черныш Е.К., К истории населения энеолитического времени в Среднем Приднестровье // Неолит и энеолит юга Европейской части СССР, Москва, 1962.

Ukrainian

  • Бібіков С. Трипільська культура. Археологія Української РСР, т. І. Київ, 1971.
  • Енциклопедія Трипільської цивілізації, Київ, Укрполіграфмедіа, 2004, т. І-ІІ.
  • Захарук Ю. Пізній етап трипільської культури. Археологія Української РСР, т. I. Київ, 1971.
  • Пастернак Я. Археологія України. Торонто 1961.
  • Трипільська культура, т. І, АН УРСР, Інститут Археології. Київ, 1940.
  • Черниш К. Ранньотрипільське поселення Ленківці на Середньому Дністрі. АН УРСР, Інститут Археології. Київ, 1959.

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

de:Cucuteni-Kultur

el:Πολιτισμός Κουκουτένι es:Cultura de Cucuteni fr:Culture de Cucuteni-Trypillia it:Cultura di Cucuteni-Trypillian nl:Cucutenicultuur no:Cucuteni-kulturen pl:Kultura Cucuteni-Trypole ro:Cultura Cucuteni ru:Трипольская археологическая культура sr:Трипољска култура sh:Kultura Cucuteni sv:Tripoljekulturen uk:Трипільська культура vi:Văn hóa Cucuteni-Tripillia

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