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File:Etruscan civilization map.png

Etruscan cities flourished over most of Italy during the Roman Iron Age, marking the farthest extent of Etruscan civilization. They were gradually assimilated first by Italics in the south, then by Celts in the north and finally in Etruria itself by the growing Roman Republic.

That many Roman cities were formerly Etruscan was well known to all the Roman authors. The Etruscan names of the major cities in this category survived in inscriptions and are listed below. Some cities were founded by Etruscans in prehistoric times and bore entirely Etruscan names. Others were colonized by Etruscans who Etruscanized the name, usually Italic.

Twelve citiesEdit

History is most ample concerning the Dodecapoli, the "twelve cities" of the Etruscan League. They have no completely authoritative roster. George Dennis[1] summarizes an explanation that:

Where Livy mentions the Twelve Cities, after the fall of Veii (VII.21), it can only mean that the number being a fixed one ... the place of the city that was separated was immediately supplied by another ....

By the time the Etrurian twelve spring into the light of history, the Etruscan cities to the north have been assimilated by invasions of the Celts, and those of the south by infiltration of the Italics. The table below lists Etruscan cities most often included in the Dodecapoli as well as other cities for which there is any substantial evidence that they were once inhabited by Etruscans in any capacity. Roman and Italian names are given, but they are not necessarily etymologically related. Relationships generally tend to be obvious. For sources and etymologies (if any) refer to the linked articles.[2]

Etruscan cities were autonomous states, but they were linked in this League of Twelve Cities and had a federal sanctuary at the Fanum Voltumnae near Volsinii.[3]

According to Roman historian Pliny the Elder[4] the city of Bolsena was entirely burned up by a bolt from Mars.

Table of cities in Etruscan, Latin, ItalianEdit

Etruscan Latin Italian
Dodecapoli candidates
Aret- Arrētium Arezzo
Chaire, Chaisrie, Caisra, Cisra Caere, Agylla Cerveteri and its frazione Ceri
Clevsin Clusium, Camars Chiusi
Curtun Cortōna Cortona
Perusna, Persna Perusia Perugia
Pupluna, Fufluna Populōnia Populonia
Tarchuna, Tarchna Tarquinii Tarquinia, Corneto
Vatluna, Vetluna Vetulōnia Vetulonia
Veia Veii abandoned
Velathri Volaterrae Volterra
Velch, Velcal, Velcl Vulci Volci
Velzna- Volsinii Bolsena or Orvieto?
Other Etrurian[5]
Capna Capena Capena
Careiae, Careae Galera, now abandoned
Cusi Cosa Orbetello
Hepa? Heba (Greek name) Magliano in Toscana
Narce? Narce Mazzano Romano
Nepete, Nepet Colonia Nepensis Nepi
Rusellae near modern Roselle Terme
Saena?, Sena Saena Siena
Sveama-, Suana Suana Sovana
Statna? Statōnia Poggio Buco
Surina, Surna Surriīna Viterbo?
Suthri Sutrium Sutri
Tlamu Telamōn Talamone
(Tular) Tuder Todi
Visul, Vipsul Faesulae Fiesole

Etruscan Latin Italian
Northern
Arimna Ariminum Rimini
Atria, Hatria Adria Adria
Ceisna Caesena Cesena
Felsina Bonōnia Bologna
Manthva Mantua Mantua, Mantova
Misa? Marzabotto
Mutina Mutina Modena
Parma Parma Parma
Ravena, Ravna Ravenna Ravenna
Spina Spina abandoned
Southern
Acerrae Acerra
Capua, Capeva Capua Capua
Inarime(?) Pitecusa, Greek Pithekoussai Ischia
Irna Salernum Salerno
Nula, Nuvla Nola Nola
Pumpai? Pompeii destroyed
Ruma Rōma Roma
Suessula abandoned
Tuscana, Tuscna Tuscāna Tuscania
Corsican
Alalia Aleria Aleria

NotesEdit

  1. Appendix to Chapter I, Note IV.
  2. The Bonfantes (2002) pages 222-223 have published a good overall list.
  3. Cary, M.; H.H. Scullard (1979). A History of Rome (3rd ed.). p. 25. ISBN 0312383959. 
  4. Natural History, II, 18
  5. Parts of ancient Etruria near Rome are now in Lazio. This account accepts the ancient boundary along the Tiber.

BibliographyEdit

  • Bonfante, G.; L. Bonfante (2002). The Etruscan Language. An Introduction. Manchester University Press. 
  • Dennis, George (1848). The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria. London: John Murray.  Available in the Gazeteer of Bill Thayer's Website at [1]

External linksEdit

es:Anexo:Lista de ciudades etruscas

sv:Etruskiska städer no:Etruskiske byer

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