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File:Mapa escriptures paleohispàniques-ang.jpg
File:Ethnographic Iberia 200 BCE.PNG

The Iberians were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodot and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula at least from the 6th century BC. These included: the Airenosi, Andosini, Ausetani, Bastetani, Bastuli, Bergistani, Castellani, Cessetani, Ceretani, Contestani, Edetani, Elisices, Iacetani, Ilercavones, Ilergetes, Indigetes, Lacetani, Laietani, Oretani, Sedetani, Sordones, Suessetani, and Turdetani (notice that there are some doubts regarding the ethno-linguistic affiliation of some of these). The Roman and Greek sources often diverge about the precise location of each Iberian people and also about the list of Iberian peoples.

The Iberians were not a clearly defined culture, ethnic group or political entity. The name is instead a blanket term for a number of peoples belonging to a pre-Roman, Iron Age culture inhabiting the Iberian peninsula who have been historically identified as "Iberian". Although these peoples shared certain common features, they were by no means homogeneous and they diverged widely in other respects.

HistoryEdit

The Iberians lived in isolated communities based on a tribal organization. They also had a knowledge of metalworking, including bronze, and agricultural techniques. In the centuries preceding Carthaginian and Roman conquest, Iberian settlements grew in social complexity, exhibiting evidence of social stratification and urbanization. This process was probably aided by trading contacts with the Phoenicians, Greeks, and Carthaginians. Among the most important goods traded by the Iberians were precious metals, particularly tin and copper.

The Phoenicians established their first colony on the Iberian Peninsula in 1100 B.C. (Gadir, Gades, modern Cádiz) and probably made contact with Iberians then or shortly thereafter.

Greek colonists made the first historical reference to the Iberians in the 6th century B.C. The Greeks also dubbed as "Iberians" another people, currently known as Caucasian Iberians. It is not known whether the two had any connection.

OriginsEdit

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File:Mapa llengües paleohispàniques-ang.jpg

Iberian origins are not clear; however, there are two theories on the subject:

Celts crossed the Pyrenees into Spain in two major migrations in the ninth and the seventh centuries B.C. The Celts settled for the most part north of the Rio Duero and the Rio Ebro, where they mixed with the Iberians to form groups called Celtiberians or Iberian-Celts."[5][6][8]

External influencesEdit

The Iberians traded extensively with other Mediterranean cultures. Iberian pottery has been found in France, Italy, and North Africa. The Iberians also had extensive contact with Greek colonists. The Iberians may have adopted some of the Greeks' artistic techniques. Statues such as the Lady of Baza and the Lady of Elx are thought to have been made by Iberians relatively well acquainted with Greek art. Thucydides stated that one of the three original tribes of Sicily, the Sicani, were of Iberian origin, though "Iberian" at the time could have included what we think of as Gaul.[9]

The Iberians were placed under Carthaginian rule for a short time between the First and Second Punic Wars. They supplied troops to Hannibal's army. The Romans subsequently conquered the Iberian Peninsula and slowly absorbed the local culture and language.

Iberian cultureEdit

File:Guerrero de Mogente.jpg
File:Bronce ibero.jpg
File:Plom I de La Bastida (Cara A).jpg
File:Plom I de La Serreta (Cara B).jpg

Iberian languageEdit

The Iberian language, like the rest of paleohispanic languages, became extinct by the 1st to 2nd centuries AD, after being gradually replaced by Latin. Iberian seems to be a language isolate. It is certainly not an Indo-European language. Links with other languages have been claimed, but they have not been demonstrated. One such proposed link was with the Basque language, but this theory is also disputed.

Iberian scriptsEdit

The Iberians use three different scripts to represent the Iberian language.

Northeastern Iberian script and southeastern Iberian script share a common distinctive typological characteristic, also present in other paleohispanic scripts: they present signs with syllabic value for the occlusives and signs with monofonematic value for the rest of consonants and vowels. From a writing systems point of view they are neither alphabets nor syllabaries, they are mixed scripts that normally are identified as semi-syllabaries. About this common origin, there is no agreement between researchers: for some this origin is only linked to the Phoenician alphabet while for others the Greek alphabet had participated too.

ArtEdit

The Iberians produced sculpture in stone and bronze, most of which was much influenced by the Greeks and Phoenicians. The styles of Iberian sculpture are divided geographically into Levantine, Central, Southern, and Western groups, of which the Levantine group displays the most Greek influence.

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

Modern peoples of Iberia:

Pre-Roman cultures of Iberia:

Archeological sites:

Related to Iberian culture:

ReferencesEdit

Further reading Edit

  • Beltrán, Miguel (1996): Los iberos en Aragón, Zaragoza.
  • Ruiz, Arturo; Molinos, Manuel (1993): Los iberos, Barcelona.
  • Sanmartí, Joan; Santacana, Joan (2005): Els ibers del nord, Barcelona.
  • Sanmartí, Joan (2005): «La conformación del mundo ibérico septentrional», Palaeohispanica 5, pp. 333-358.

External linksEdit

ca:Ibers cs:Iberové cy:Iberiaid de:Iberer el:Ίβηρες es:Ibero eo:Iberoj fr:Ibères gl:Iberos ko:이베리아족 hr:Iberi it:Iberi he:איברים (חצי האי האיברי) ka:იბერები (ესპანეთი) hu:Ibérek (Pireneusi-félsziget) nl:Iberiërs ja:イベリア人 no:Iberere oc:Ibèr pl:Iberowie pt:Iberos ru:Иберы sk:Iberi sl:Iberci sh:Iberi fi:Iberit sv:Iberer tr:İberler uk:Ібери zh:伊比利亚人

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