Kumanovo (Template:Lang-mk, Albanian: Kumanovë) is thе third largest city in the Republic of Macedonia (after Skopje and Bitola) and is the seat of Kumanovo Municipality which is the largest municipality in the country. Municipal institutions include a city council, mayor and other administrative bodies.
The name of the city in Albanian and Turkish is Kumanova; whilst in Serbian and Bulgarian, it is the same as in Macedonian: Kumanovo (Куманово). The etymology of the name is connected with Cumans' invasion in the area in the early 12th century.
Kumanovo is situated in the northeastern part of the Republic of Macedonia, near the capital city of Skopje. The coordinates of the city are approximately 42°05'N and 21°40'E. Kumanovo lies 340 m above sea level and is surrounded by the Karadag part of Skopska Crna Gora mountain on its western side, Gradishtanska planina mountain on its southern side, and Mangovica and German mountain on the eastern side. Kumanovo has a temperate climate. Skopje airport also serves Kumanovo.
The population of Kumanovo municipality according to the 2002 census numbers 105,484, the majority of which are ethnic Macedonians (63.746), with a significant minority of ethnic Albanians (27.290) and Serbs (9062).
The area boasts several prehistoric settlements, among which are the Kostoperska karpa, the Bronze Age Gradiste near the village of Pelince, the Neolithic site of Mlado Nagoričane, the Iron Age tumulus Groblje at Vojnik, the Roman Necropolis Drezga of Lopate, and the Roman Settlement Vicianus at Klečovce.
The city was first mentioned in 1519 in a document housed in a Turkish archive in Istanbul. The most comprehensive and relevant information on Kumanovo is provided by Evliya Çelebi in 1660/1661:
- "The colony of Kumanovo is situated on the territory of the Skopje sanjak and represents one county. The city is embellished with many rivers and 600 tile-roofs houses. The mosque in the downtown is beautiful, there are teke, madrassa, hammam, a number of shops and water mills; and the climate is pleasant and agreeable. There are many vineyards and gardens".
Kumanovo became an urban settlement and administrative center of the region at the end of the 16th century or the beginning of the 17th century. Following the turbulent events (notably, the Karposh Uprising in 1689) the city experienced a period of stagnation, and by the end of 18th century Kumanovo epitomized an Ottoman provincial town.
According to the Turkish historian Silahdar Findikli Mehmed Aga, its leader Karposh initially was a vojvod of haiduks near Dospat, in present-day Bulgaria, but later the Turks named him chief of Christian auxiliary forces in the area between Sofia, Veles, Dojran, Kjustendil and Nevrokop. Initially, he was a vassal of Turks, but when the Ottoman empire began to weaken in 1689 and discontent rose concerning new higher taxation policies, Karpoš became a turning point in the battle versus the Turks. In that period Austria staged an attack on the Ottoman Empire. Then the Karpoš seized upon the situation and the uprising quickly spread to the rebels freeing Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Kumanovo, Kačanik and in other towns. Then, together with the Austrian army, lead by Emperor Leopold I, they fought to liberate Skopje and Štip.
Later there was a change in the military and political situation in the Balkans, which had a crucial effect on the rebellion. The Austrian army was forced to withdraw and powerful Turkish forces, reinforced by Tatar detachments belonging to the Crimean Khan Selim I Giray, attacked the rebels. After fierce battles the Turks took Kriva Palanka, the rebel stronghold, and then attacked Kumanovo and its newly-constructed fortress. Karpoš was captured, removed to Skopje, and put to death on the Stone Bridge across the Vardar.
First Balkan War Edit
In October 1912, during the First Balkan War, Serbian forces under the command of General Radomir Putnik won a decisive victory over the Ottomans north of the town. The two-day Battle of Kumanovo ended Ottoman authority in Vardar Macedonia and prepared the way for the region's integration into Yugoslavia.
Second Balkan War Edit
World War I Edit
World War IIEdit
The anti-fascist insurrection of Macedonians and the struggle for national and social liberation began in Kumanovo and Prilep on October 11, 1941. On 11 October 1941, in Kumanovo and Prilep started the antifashist struggle of the Macedonian people. The struggle ended with victory and formation of the Macedonian federative state inside Yugoslavia Federation (SFRY). One of the famous partizans from Kumanovo was Hristijan Todorovski Karposh shown on the picture. After 1945 Kumanovo experienced fast economic, administrative and cultural development.
It developed economically in the late 19th century (agriculture, handcrafts and trade). Still, industrial development occurred only at the end of the Second World War. The rapid economic, administrative and cultural expansion of Kumanovo began in 1945. Today, it is a modern city with approximately 100,000 inhabitants.
2001 Albanian InsurgencyEdit
The Albanin insurgenccy in Macedonia first started in the mountains otskirts of Tetovo and then spread in May 2001 to the region of Kumanovo moustly to the north.
The town's metal-processing, tobacco, agriculture, footwear and textile industries have made it an economic, trading and cultural center of approximately 135,529 people. Agriculture and trade developed mainly in the 19th century, but the city's modern look was established after the Second World War.
A 40 kilometre highway exists between Skopje and Kumanovo, going near Kumanovo in the north and crossing the border with Serbia. A railway also connects Skopje with Kumanovo and Serbia. Another important road goes from Kumanovo to Kriva Palanka and then to the border with Bulgaria.
Kumanovo has several monuments dating back to the prehistoric period. The most important ones are: Gradishte, an archaeological place of interest that is situated near the village of Pelince and dates from the Bronze Age. Near the village of Mlado Nagorichane is another interesting site dating from the period of Neolith. Near the village of Lopate is the Drezga place that represents a Roman necropolis.
The oldest folklore assemble in the Republic of Macedonia, KUD "Pance Pesev" is placed in Kumanovo. This year the assemble is celebrating 80 years of existence. It has represented Kumanovo and Macedonia on many international folklore festivals in Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Turkey, Croatia, Romania, Hungary, Poland]], France, etc. The president is Mr. Miroslav Krstevski.
Kumanovo has a library “ Tane Georgievski Library” , cultural center Trajko Prokopiev, museum and national theatre. Several painting colonies and exhibitions take place every year in Kumanovo or in nearby villages. Kumanovo is distinguished by its jazz festival which features bands from all over the world. In 2002 the Macedonian bands Foltin and Dragan Dautovski Quartet, as well as bands from Croatia, Hungary, Netherlands, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro participated in the festival and in 2005 bands from as far as the Netherlands and Norway participated.
Every year Kumanovo has a “Days of comedy” festival, sponsored by the Macedonian Ministry of Culture, featuring comedies from several Macedonian theatres and also from neighbouring Serbia and Bulgaria.
Kumanovo municipality was organizing the manifestation “City of culture 2006”.
Goce Delchev, Pero Chicho (Banevo Trlo), Bedinje, Karposh, Ajduchka Cheshma, Pukovsko, Jane Sandanski (Babin Dol), Sredorek.
Oktomvriska Revolucija, 3 MUB, Goce Delchev, Narodna Revolucija, Nikola Tesla, Leninova, 11 Oktomvri, Ivo Ribar Lola and Pero Chicho.
Opancharsko sokace, Nagorichki sokak, Proevski sokak, Veleshki sokak, Romanovski sokak, Ukumat sokak and Vranjsko Dzade.
One of the most important sites located near the Kumanovo is the 4,000 year old megalithic astronomical observatory of Kokino, located 30 km northeast of Kumanovo and discovered in 2001. It is ranked fourth on the list of old observatories by NASA. Sculpture of Batko Gjorgjija located in the center of the city, Monument Four Poles also located in the center of the city on the main square. Monument Kosturnica. House Museum of Hristijan Todorovski - Karposh. The oldest and biggest church in the town is the Church of St. Nikolas. There are icons from the XIII century in the church. The church represents a masterwork of Andreja Damjanov, an important Macedonian renaissance architect. Church Holy Trinity built in 1902, Church of St. George, Staro Nagoričane, Church of St. Petka in the village of Mlado Nagoričane, the monastery of Karpino, the Ascension of Holy Mother in the village of Matejce, Eski Mosque built in 1751, Monument Zebrnjak, Kumanovo Spa in the village of Proevce and Sports Hall Sokolana. Other landmarks are: staue of Woman Fighter, buildings: Zanatski dom and Kasapski Krug and ASNOM memorial center in the village Pelince.
Macedonian National Football Team played friendly match with Egypt in Kumanovo on the 29th of September 1998. The game took place at City Stadium Kumanovo and the scorrers for macedonin team were Zaharievski Srgjan and Sainovski Djevdat. The match ended 2:2
Clubs: Linka, Club, Tunel, NAMA Cafe, Versaj. Discothèques: Amnesia. Restorants:The Harp Irish Pub, Fra Giorgio and many more.
see: Macedonian mafia
Kumanovo is twinned with following cities and municipalities:
- 20px Varaždin; Croatia
- 20px Vranje; Serbia
- 20px Bijeljina; Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 20px Plovdiv; Bulgaria
- 20px Leskovac; Serbia
- 20px Nicosia; Cyprus
- 20px Çorlu; Turkey
- 20px Prozor; Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 20px Gornji Milanovac; Serbia
- 20px Kosovska Mitrovica; Serbia
- 20px Pančevo; Serbia
- 20px Nikšić; Montenegro
- 20px Čukarica; (City of Belgrade) Serbia
- List of people from Kumanovo
- Kumanovo dialect
- Kumanovo Municipality
- Buildings and Structures in Kumanovo
- Churches in Kumanovo
- Karposh's Rebellion October 1689.
- Battle of Kumanovo October 1912.
- Kumanovo Treaty 9 June 1999.
|Geography||Skopska Crna Gora • Gradištanska planina • German mountain • Kumanovo River • Kojnarka River|
|Landmarks||Batko Gjorgjija • Kosturnica Monument • Zebrnjak • Kumanovo Bath • Woman Fighter • Zanatski Dom • Kasapski Krug|
|Churches||Church of St. Nikolas • Church Holy Trinity • Church St. Petka • Church of St. George|
|Sport Centers||City Stadium Kumanovo • Sports Hall Kumanovo • Sports Hall Sokolana • Milano Arena|
|Education||Euro Colage Kumanovo|
|Transportaioin||Adzitepe Airport • Train station Kumanovo • Bus station Kumanovo • European route E75|
- Official Web Site of Kumanovo
- Kumanovo FAQ
- Kokino megalithic observatory
- Kokino ancient observatory
- Kumanovo jazz festival
- Web Site of Kumanovo
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